Fatty acid synthesis and metabolism and negative symptoms

In previous posts I held that biotin and pantothenic are helpful in the treatment of negative symptoms of schizophrenia and the two supplements are. I have not, however, stressed the role biotin and coenzyme A, which is synthesized from pantothenic acid, play in the synthesis and metabolism of non-essential fatty acids. Fatty acid synthesis and fatty acid metabolism require coenzyme A and biotin. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase catalyzes the rate limiting step in the synthesis of fatty acids. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase requires CoA and biotin.

Biotin and pantothenic acid work a lot better for negative symptom of schizophrenia if intake of animal fats is increased concurrently. Low levels of biotin would adversely affect the synthesis and metabolism of non-essential fatty acids. Fatty acids derived from essential fatty acids would not be affected by low levels of biotin.

In terms of what non-essential fatty acids to supplement with animal fatty acids are basically the only route to go. Non-essential fatty acids from plants will have high levels of polyphenols and the mix of non-essential fatty acids from meat is a better non-essential fatty acid mix than can be obtained from various plants.

I have heavily stressed adverse affects of polyphenols. I have focused on decreases in iron absorption that can result from polyphenols. Polyphenols, however, can also increase beta-oxidation. Increasing beta-oxidation results in huge difficulties if there are difficulties in fatty acid synthesis and metabolism. Individuals who have difficulties synthesizing and metabolizing non-essential fatty acids will be adversely affected by high intakes of polyphenols.

Intakes of animal fatty acids must be increased for full effectiveness of biotin and pantothenic acid in the treatment of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia. See the Treatment page on what more would be required.

Recommendations against saturated fats by the American Heart Association could have had disastrous effects on the mental and neurological health of tens of millions of individuals. There is the likelihood that Warren Buffett would be a poor unhappy man now if he had followed the dietary recommendations of the American Heart Association.

Warren Buffett’s diet

Warren Buffett eats burgers, sausages, eggs, steak, ice cream and drinks milk shakes and Coca-Cola. Warren Buffet’s diet is high in animal fats which are high in stearic acid. Most of the stearic acid in human diets is from animal fats. Stearic acid promotes iron utilization.

Cocoa butter has levels of stearic acid. There is some probability that at least some of the natural flavors in Coca-Cola are cocoa extracts. Cocoa butter is not recommended as cocoa butter is high is polyphenols which greatly decrease iron absorption. Cocoa butter may also not contain all required fats.

Synthesis of various long chain non-essential fatty acids synthesized from non-essential fatty acids could be particularly impaired by dysregulations of pantothenate and biotin transport.Various non-essential long chain fatty acids are synthesized from fatty acids in meat. Meat would supply the long chain fatty acids required. That at least some humans must have diets from which they must obtain fats present in meat makes a great deal of sense in terms of evolution. Stearic acid may not be the only relevant fatty acid in meat.

Warren Buffet appears to be a very happy man of which his diet could play a significant part. Warren Buffet’s diet could assist with iron utilization and supply required animal fats. Warren Buffett might try some french fries fried in beef tallow.

Genes and histones in the gut as sites of DNA and histone hypermethylation

Genes and histones in the gut are more exposed to the environment than are genes and histones in other internal organs. Given factors in the environment that can result in DNA and histone hypermethylation genes and histones in the gut, compared to genes and histones in other internal organs, would have the highest probability of becoming hypermethylated due to a very high exposure to the environment. The gut is a logical starting point when investigating how environmental factors result in DNA and histone hypermethylation.

An absolutely accurate infomercial except for one thing

This infomercial from Albion Minerals is absolutely accurate except for one thing. Albion glycinated minerals are not effective in terms of improving health. The infomercial emphasizes that Albion glycinated minerals are not available in the gut which is totally accurate but rather bypass the gut, however, that is a huge drawback. Minerals from mineral supplements to be effective in terms of improving health must be both available in the gut and be available systematically.

Usually mineral supplements are supplemented when blood mineral levels are normal and more of a mineral can be helpful when blood levels are normal but more of the mineral must be available in the gut.

At this time the view expressed in this post is my personal opinion and not backed by peer-reviewed published scientific research.

Polyphenols as antioxidants

Due to low absorption polyphenols are held to be poor in vivo antioxidants. The idea that is being put forward is that what happens in the gut can have systematic affects. The antioxidant and iron chelating properties of polyphenol compounds in the gut can have large effects on aconitase 1 in the gut and other enzymes in the TCA cycle in the gut with systematic effects then occurring. Polyphenols are not well absorbed, however, polyphenols do not have to be well absorbed to have large systematic effects. Polyphenols are everywhere in plant based foods. Difficulties only arise with polyphenol extracts such as natural flavors and foods processed to have concentrated polyphenols such as spices, sodas, coffee and tea.

Adverse affects from polyphenol extracts could appear to be various mysterious allergies or hypersensitivities

Polyphenol extracts are everywhere. Natural flavors are polyphenol extracts. Sodas contain polyphenols from natural flavors. Various plant oils contain concentrated polyphenols. A lot of softgels contain soybean oil which contains polyphenols. Lecithin is made from soybeans. Various supplements are marketed on the very basis that such supplements contain polyphenols, for example quercetin, pycnogenol and resveratrol. Coffee and tea contain polyphenols. Almost all frozen foods will contain soy and/or natural flavors. Polyphenols in foods are not a difficulty. Only polyphenol extracts are a difficulty.

This is starting to sound about as bad as ‘electromagnetic hypersensitivity’ in terms of being able to escape the difficulty. Cases of ‘electromagnetic hypersensitivity’ could in fact be adverse reactions to polyphenol extracts and concentrated polyphenols.

Adverse reactions to polyphenols are not immune responses. The difficulty with polyphenols is that polyphenols bind to iron. Polyphenols binding to iron in the gut could lead to inactivation of aconitase 1 in the gut which could have systematic effects.

Different binding affinities of different polyphenols with iron

Different polyphenols have different binding affinities to iron apparently due to different levels of iron-binding galloyl groups in different polyphenols. The polyphenols in foods with high levels of polyphenols would also bind iron at higher levels than polyphenols of foods with low levels of polyphenols. The point is that different foods with different kinds of polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols can have different affects on iron. However, if all iron is basically complexed with polyphenols due to coffee, tea and/or sodas then foods with different polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols might not make a difference. Fruits and vegetables would seem not to be delivering the real thing as well as Coca-Cola. The particular delights of different fruits and vegetables could be lost in a diet is high in coffee, tea and/or sodas. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely related to all-cause mortality. Mental well-being is associated with high levels of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Diets high in coffee, tea and/or sodas could bias individuals against healthy diets.

A direct connection between the gut and brain and mood is widely accepted now. How signals are sent from the gut to brain and how those signals affect mood has not been clearly established. Levels of aconitase 1 in the gut, activity of the TCA cycle in the gut and regulation of iron regulated proteins could play a large role in that connection.

Coffee and homocysteine

Filtered or unfiltered coffee increases homocysteine levels in healthy individuals whereas caffeine has a much weaker effect on homocysteine levels. Stopping drinking coffee reduces homocysteine levels.

Increased homocysteine levels point to decreased levels of L-cysteine which is synthesized from homocysteine. With decreased synthesis of L-cysteine iron-sulfur cluster formation could be dysregulated which could upset many biological processes. Increased homocysteine levels could could affect DNA methylation. In schizophrenia there is a positive association between plasma homocysteine and DNA methylation. Difficulties due to coffee could take years to develop due to hypermethylation of genes taking years to develop.

The association of APOE-ε4 with Alzheimer’s disease could be due to a connection of APOE-ε4 with selenium transport into cells.

Carriers of of the apoE ε4 allele have significantly lower selenium levels in nails and brains. Selenoprotein P is a selenium transport protein. Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 by binding to selenoprotein P regulates uptake of selenium into cells. Both apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and apolipoprotein E regulate transport of selenoprotein P into cells. Selenoprotein P provides protection from amyloid β (Aβ), the main component of amyloid plaques seen in Alzheimer’s disease. The association of apoE ε4 with Alzheimer’s disease could be due to apoE ε4 not being as effective in regulation of selenium transport into cells via apolipoprotein E receptor 2 as other alleles of apoE.