A simple experiment that can be done at home

If an individual has a mental illness that individual should try drinking only water for a month and check at the end of the month whether there has been an amelioration of his or her mental illness. Food can, of course, be eaten but preferably foods without natural flavors. In the gut iron must be uncomplexed with polyphenols or with compounds that increase iron absorption. Both polyphenols which decrease iron absorption and acids, such as citric acid, that increase iron absorption must be avoided. Vitamin C supplements should be avoided. If an individual takes a few drinks of drinks other than water an intense unease could result and that individual will be inclined to try a ‘hair of the dog’ remedy which will just greatly worsen mood. Some unease while drinking only water could come from eating foods with natural flavors. Upon reading frozen food labels what goes into frozen foods frequently seems almost perfectly senseless. One or two 100 mg pills of caffeine taken a day should be okay. Even if an individual does not have a mental illness drinking only water should be tried for a month to see if there are enhancements in mood.

Extraordinary claims require extraordinary proofs. In practice extraordinary proofs should be readily obtainable. Drinking only water for month can easily be done.

Why would humans be so sensitive to polyphenols? In small amounts polyphenols can have large though subtle effects on mood. In small amounts for example the amounts in fresh unprocessed fruits and vegetables polyphenols can have very positive affects on mood. Nature arranged matters so humans would get kicks from eating fruits and vegetables. With sodas, coffee and tea humans have lost their liking for fruits and vegetables and now just prefer junk food.

Only water was drunk in Paleolithic times. Herbal tea is allowed on current Paleolithic diets however in the Paleolithic after a day of hunting mastodons herbal tea was not drunk around campfires. The apparent safety of herbal tea is very deceptive. Herbal tea is very high in polyphenols.

Positive results should be present in two or three days. There should be some fresh fruits and/or vegetables available to address cravings for polyphenols.

Different binding affinities of different polyphenols with iron

Different polyphenols have different binding affinities to iron apparently due to different levels of iron-binding galloyl groups in different polyphenols. The polyphenols in foods with high levels of polyphenols would also bind iron at higher levels than polyphenols of foods with low levels of polyphenols. The point is that different foods with different kinds of polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols can have different affects on iron. However, if all iron is basically complexed with polyphenols due to coffee, tea and/or sodas then foods with different polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols might not make a difference. Fruits and vegetables would seem not to be delivering the real thing as well as Coca-Cola. The particular delights of different fruits and vegetables could be lost in a diet is high in coffee, tea and/or sodas. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely related to all-cause mortality. Mental well-being is associated with high levels of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Diets high in coffee, tea and/or sodas could bias individuals against healthy diets.

A direct connection between the gut and brain and mood is widely accepted now. How signals are sent from the gut to brain and how those signals affect mood has not been clearly established. Levels of aconitase 1 in the gut, activity of the TCA cycle in the gut and regulation of iron regulated proteins could play a large role in that connection.

Coffee and homocysteine

Filtered or unfiltered coffee increases homocysteine levels in healthy individuals whereas caffeine has a much weaker effect on homocysteine levels. Stopping drinking coffee reduces homocysteine levels.

Increased homocysteine levels point to decreased levels of L-cysteine which is synthesized from homocysteine. With decreased synthesis of L-cysteine iron-sulfur cluster formation could be dysregulated which could upset many biological processes. Increased homocysteine levels could could affect DNA methylation. In schizophrenia there is a positive association between plasma homocysteine and DNA methylation. Difficulties due to coffee could take years to develop due to hypermethylation of genes taking years to develop.

The association of APOE-ε4 with Alzheimer’s disease could be due to a connection of APOE-ε4 with selenium transport into cells.

Carriers of of the apoE ε4 allele have significantly lower selenium levels in nails and brains. Selenoprotein P is a selenium transport protein. Apolipoprotein E receptor 2 by binding to selenoprotein P regulates uptake of selenium into cells. Both apolipoprotein E receptor 2 and apolipoprotein E regulate transport of selenoprotein P into cells. Selenoprotein P provides protection from amyloid β (Aβ), the main component of amyloid plaques seen in Alzheimer’s disease. The association of apoE ε4 with Alzheimer’s disease could be due to apoE ε4 not being as effective in regulation of selenium transport into cells via apolipoprotein E receptor 2 as other alleles of apoE.

Coenzyme Q10 is associated with decreased mortality. Why?

Still reduced cardiovascular mortality 12 years after supplementation with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years: A validation of previous 10-year follow-up results of a prospective randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial in elderly.

Alehagen U, Aaseth J, Alexander J, Johansson P.

The following quote is from the paper.

“Conclusion: This is a 12-year follow-up of a group of healthy elderly participants that were supplemented with selenium and coenzyme Q10 for four years. Even after twelve years we observed a significantly reduced risk for CV mortality in this group, as well as in subgroups of patients with diabetes, hypertension, ischemic heart disease or impaired functional capacity. The results thus validate the results obtained in the 10-year evaluation. The protective action was not confined to the intervention period, but persisted during the follow-up period. The mechanisms behind this effect remain to be fully elucidated, although various effects on cardiac function, oxidative stress, fibrosis and inflammation have previously been identified. Since this was a small study, the observations should be regarded as hypothesis-generating.”

Coenzyme Q10 is a co-factor for succinate dehydrogenase. Succinate dehydrogenase metabolizes succinate in the TCA cycle. Succinate inhibits 2-oxoglutarate-dependent histone and DNA demethylase enzymes. By way of being a co-factor for succinate dehydrogenase coenzyme Q10 could reduce inappropriate DNA and histone methlylation decreasing mortality. Ubiquinol should not be helpful in terms of decreasing mortality.

The Viennese Coffee House

In Vienna ‘the heyday of the coffee house was the turn of the nineteenth century when writers like Peter Altenberg, Alfred Polgar, Egon Friedell, Karl Kraus, Hermann Broch and Friedrich Torberg made them their preferred place of work and pleasure. Many famous artists, scientists, and politicians of the period such as Arthur Schnitzler, Stefan Zweig, Egon Schiele, Gustav Klimt, Adolf Loos, Theodor Herzl, Alfred Adler,[13] and even Leon Trotsky were constant coffee house patrons.’

To say the least things did not turn out well for Vienna during the 20th century.

The Turks upon retreating from Vienna left bags and bags of coffee behind which tells that the defeated Turkish army was running on coffee. The Viennese took the bags and bags of coffee into their city and proceeded to develop a coffee culture. The left behind bags of coffee can be seen as a kind of Trojan horse though even Odysseus would have had difficulties thinking that up.