Histone acetylation, which adds acetyl groups to lysine residues of histones, relaxes chromatin, which is composed of histones. Histone acetylation increases transcription of genes. Acetyl groups are transferred to histones from acetyl-coenzyme A. Appropriate synthesis of coenzyme A and acetyl-coenzyme A are required for appropriate histone acetylation. With the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, which synthesizes acetyl-coenzyme A, dysregulated in schizophrenia there will not be appropriate histone acetylation in schizophrenia. With histone acetylation dysregulated in schizophrenia epigenetic mechanisms are dysregulated in yet another way in schizophrenia.
Increasing histone acetylation by re-regulating the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex could have the same effect as histone deacetylase inhibitors which improve learning. Improving abilities to learn in individuals with schizophrenia would clearly be going in the right direction.
Increasing histone acetylation could also improve learning in Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease synthesis of L-cysteine is decreased as evidenced by high homocysteine levels. See my paper A disease-modifying treatment for Alzheimer’s disease: focus on the trans-sulfuration pathway, which was published in Reviews in the Neurosciences. With synthesis of L-cysteine decreased synthesis of coenzyme A and acetyl-coenzyme A are decreased in Alzheimer’s disease which would lead to decreases in histone acetylation and difficulties in learning.
Nootropic effects of sulbutiamine could be do the ability of sulbutiamine to increase synthesis of acetyl-coenzyme A and thereby increase histone acetylaltion. Sublingual cocarboxylase seems to work better than sulbutiamine.
Wonderfully the treatment, presented on the Treatment page, which would be effective for schizophrenia could also prevent and treat Alzheimer’s disease. Schizophrenia differs from Alzheimer’s disease as there are different epigenetic dysregulations, however, the headwaters of the schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease are the same which allows for identical treatments.
Physicists have a notion of symmetry breaking where at higher energy levels different particles are identical but upon symmetry breakings particles diverge from each other and become different particles.
Different epigenetic dysregulations are different symmetry breakings but at the headwaters of both illnesses schizophrenia and Alzheimer’s disease are identical.