Taurine lowers blood pressure in humans by increasing synthesis of hydrogen sulfide, which is a vasodilator, through increasing activities of cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase, the two enzymes in the transsulfuration pathway. Cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase synthesize hydrogen sulfide. A meta-analysis indicates that taurine lowers blood pressure in clinically relevant amounts. Taurine also decreases homocysteine levels in humans. There is also lots of evidence from animals than taurine lowers total cholesterol. Research points to taurine as being the factor for Japanese longevity which could be due to taurine lowering various cardiovascular risk factors. The actions of taurine are more pronounced when taurine is taken on an empty stomach.