Dopamine transport, serotonin transport, noradrenaline transport and GABA transport are all sodium dependent

The dopamine transporter is sodium dependent. The serotonin transporter is a member of the sodium:neurotransmitter symporter family. The norepinephrine transporter is sodium dependent. GABA transporters are sodium symporters.A symporter is a membrane protein that is involved in the transport of two different molecules across the cell membrane in the same direction.

All classes of psychotropic drugs are either directly or very closely connected to sodium symporters. Yet sodium levels in mental illness are very frequently in the normal range. How could neurotransmitter sodium symporters be dysregulated in mental illness while at the same time sodium levels are normal?

Sodium:neurotransmitter symporters are heavily regulated proteins. When epigenenetic . mechanisms go awry heavily regulated processes can go awry. When epigenetic mechanisms go awry then there is a high probability that sodium:neurotransmitter symporters will go awry.. However, the difficulty can not be fixed by increasing sodium levels. The epigenome must be reprogrammed. When reprogramming the epigenome the gut epigenome must not be overlooked TET and JmjC domain containing proteins demethylate DNA and histones respectively.

TET and JmjC domain containing proteins are vitamin C and iron dependent enzymes. . Carbonyl iron would also be required. Only trace minerals that are available in the gut can be supplemented.There are some extremely well formulated chelated minerals on the market all of which must be avoided.

Vitamin C and iron, however, cannot be taken at the same time. Vitamin C complexes with iron which would make iron unavailable in the gut even though iron absorption can be increased by vitamin C. The great overlooked fact about vitamin C supplementation is that vitamin C supplementation can reduce iron availability in the gut and iron must be available in the gut as well as systematically. Iron from iron carbonyl would be taken at bedtime five or so hours after the last vitamin C dosage of the day. Vitamin C can also interfere with copper absorption so copper from copper gluconate would also be taken at bedtime. Immediate release vitamin C, iron from carbonyl iron and copper from copper gluconate could lessen symptoms in a range of mental illnesses.

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