A meta-analysis points to bone mineral density being significantly decreased in individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Bone mineral density in schizophrenia could be decreased in individuals with schizophrenia due to deficiencies in taurine stemming from dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine which is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway.
Taurine is required for intracellular calcium homeostasis. Various bile acids are synthesized from taurine. Bile acids are required for absorption of fat soluble vitamins. Vitamin D and vitamin K are fat soluble vitamins involved in bone formation. With deficiencies of taurine calcium homeostasis can be upset and there can also be deficiencies of vitamin D and vitamin K which could lead to low bone mineral density in schizophrenia.
Low bone mineral density in schizophrenia point to there being a kind of osteomalicia in schizophrenia. With taurine deficiencies intracellular calcium homeostasis can be upset, though extracellular calcium levels could be normal, leading to a hidden osteomalicia.
Dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway can result in epigenetic changes whereby there could be localized osteomalacias. Given osteomalacia due to taurine deficiencies develops in the neck and back of the head negative symptoms of schizophrenia could develop due to compressions of cerebellums whereas given osteomalacia due to taurine deficiencies develops in lower backs then there could be ‘only’ lower back pains.
There are range of symptom in schizophrenia besides negative symptoms of schizophrenia. To treat the range of symptoms seen is schizophrenia due to dysregulations of the transsulfuration pathway supplements, beyond supplements that treat hidden oesteomalicias, are required.