‘We have not found it so it doesn’t exist’ is not a valid scientific principle

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Apes don’t get schizophrenia. Apes also don’t have culture.

Why are studies where twin babies are separated at birth needed in heritability studies of schizophrenia? Geneticists can’t nail down the genes. Given twin babies separated at birth have similar incidences of schizophrenia then various environmental influences are supposedly ruled out. The take away point is that heritability studies in schizophrenia are not finding genes that confer heritability rather the evidence for environmental effects is ruled out by twin studies where babies are separated at birth so schizophrenia susceptibility must be largely genetic.. The case for the genetic basis of schizophrenia is entirely circumstantial.

Independent assortment occurs where alleles of two different genes get sorted into gametes independently of one another. In research on the genetics of schizophrenia 108 independent genetic loci have been found to be associated with schizophrenia. Apparently these 108 genetic loci are not being inherited together. So what does the genetic theory of schizophrenia amount to – ‘Bad stuff happens. mysteriously’.

There is a lot of speculation on why only humans can get schizophrenia..Some have argued that schizophrenia exists as a costly trade-off, in the evolution of Homo sapiens, as a by-product of a yet unknown uniquely human quality. I would not say the quality is a yet unknown quality though I would strongly agree that the quality is uniquely human The quality is culture.

;Schizophrenia is epigenetic in origin. So are various persistences in culture. Education can, of course, matter too. The case for the genetic basis of schizophrenia is, I think, unfounded. Differences in genetic makeups can not explain various persistences in culture. . However cultures are persistent.

Employing the method of Sherlock Holmes slightly modified, ‘When you have eliminated all that is unfounded then whatever remains, must be the truth.’ Heritability of schizophrenia is due to transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Various persistences in human cultures are also due transgenerational epigenetic inheritance. Scientists in terms of transgenerational epigenetic inheritance in humans now hold that ‘transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of humans does not exist because we have not found it’ which is not a scientific way of proceeding.

Taurine chloramine inhibits prostaglandin E2

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Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is highly inflammatory. Inflammation is associated with major depressive disorder. Taurine chloramine inhibits PGE2.

Taurine chloramine inhibits prostaglandin E2 production in activated RAW 264.7 cells by post-transcriptional effects on inducible cyclooxygenase expression.

Quinn MR, Park E, Schuller-Levis G.

Abstract

Taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl) was recently demonstrated to inhibit production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) by activated macrophages. Since increased production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a reaction catalyzed by induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), is also associated with the inflammatory response, we determined the effects of Tau-Cl on PGE2 production and on expression of COX-2 protein and COX-2 mRNA in activated RAW 264.7 cells, a murine macrophage-like cell line. Tau-Cl inhibited production of PGE2 in a concentration dependent manner with an IC50 of 0.4 mM. The decrease in PGE2 production was largely accounted for by decreased expression of COX-2 protein. Although the kinetics of COX-2 mRNA expression was altered in Tau-Cl treated cells, mRNA expression appeared to be quantitatively unimpaired. These results suggest that Tau-Cl affects the post-transcriptional regulation of COX-2 expression and support the idea that Tau-Cl may function as an inhibitory modulator of the inflammatory response.

See also –

Selective inhibition of cyclooxygenase 2-generated prostaglandin E2 synthesis in rheumatoid arthritis synoviocytes by taurine chloramine.

Kontny E, Rudnicka W, Kowalczewski J, Marcinkiewicz J, Maslinski W.

Objective: To investigate the effects of taurine chloramine (Tau-Cl), a chlorinated derivative of the amino acid taurine, on the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) isoenzymes and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) synthesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS).

Methods: FLS, isolated from the synovial tissue of RA patients, were treated in vitro with either interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta; 1 ng/ml) alone or together with 200-500 microM Tau-Cl. The expression of COX isoenzymes was evaluated at both the protein (Western blotting) and the messenger RNA (mRNA) (reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction) levels. The concentration of PGE(2) was measured by competitive acetylcholinesterase enzyme immunoassay.

Results: Resting FLS expressed mRNA encoding both COX-1 and COX-2, but only COX-1 was present at the protein level. These cells produced negligible amounts of PGE(2). Upon stimulation with IL-1beta, elevation of COX-2, but not COX-1, mRNA and protein preceded the enhancement of PGE(2) synthesis. In the presence of 300-400 microM Tau-Cl, significant inhibition of IL-1beta-triggered COX-2 mRNA and protein, and a related decrease in PGE(2) production, was observed. In contrast, no significant changes in COX-1 mRNA and protein levels were noted.

Conclusion: Tau-Cl inhibits IL-1beta-triggered elevation of COX-2 and generation of PGE(2) by RA FLS. These results expand the spectrum of known antiinflammatory activities of this compound.

Whey protein and athletics

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More than half of high school athletes take protein supplements and percentages could increase in college and in professional sports. The NFL website strongly suggests that protein supplements can be helpful. Whey protein supplements that are quickly absorbed can have very adverse effects. Whey protein isolates are very quickly absorbed and can have very adverse effects. Most whey protein supplements contain at least some whey protein isolates. Whey protein isolate would contain only whey protein isolates but supplements labeled as whey protein usually are partly whey protein isolates.

Head injuries may not be the only problems of athletes are facing in terms of cognitive abilities. Whey protein isolates can negatively affect cognitive abilities. Any supplement formulated for quick absorption can have negative effects with whey protein isolate being one such supplement.

Casein is a much safer protein supplement but I am not recommending that athletes switch to casein from whey protein as taking supplements is full of pitfalls. The calcium phosphate in casein, for example, could decrease absorption of iron. Athletes who hold they need more protein should eat more high protein meals.

Why do individuals have differences in gut microbiota?

Gut microbiota are dependent on the environment of the gut for nutrients. If metabolic processes are dysregulated in the gut this will affect nutrients available in the gut. Some species of microbiota could be favored by various gut metabolic dysregulations while other microbiota could be disfavored. Certain microbiotic ecosystems could have direct effects, for example, causing diarrhea while other microbiotic ecoystems could only be markers for iron dysregulation in the gut which can have systematic effects.

Iron in the gut is a nutrient in the gut that affects the microbiotic ecosystem of the gut. Gut microbiota and iron are held to be crucial actors in health where many species (see Table) of gut microbiota are affected by iron supplementation.

Differences in gut microbiota could largely be a marker for iron dysregulation in the gut. Lots of substances in the diet bind with iron which could be affecting gut microbiota. Probiotics can affect iron metabolism in the gut. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v can increase iron absorption. A meta-analysis indicates that Lactobacillus plantarum 299v increases iron absorption. Lactobacillus plantarum 299v does not require iron which could make iron more available in the gut besides assisting with the absorption of iron via more iron being available to be absorbed. Bifidobacteria,. another beneficial microorganism in the gut, requires iron.

In sum gut microbiota is dysregulated in so many illnesses as iron metabolism in the gut is dysregulated in so many illnesses.

The difficulties the US is facing should be due to profound aporias

A great nation brought to it’s knees by supplements, coffee, tea and sodas? There should be profound reasons for the US going very far astray. Shouldn’t the Western tradition stemming from Socrates and Plato be fundamentally flawed? Didn’t it all go wrong with the Enlightenment? Isn’t the problem unbridled materialism? Isn’t the problem too much Christianity or too little Christianity?

Perhaps not. Coffee and tea have been very widely drunk for the last 500 years. Widespread coffee and tea drinking starts with the coming of the modern age. Coffee and tea interact with iron. And even where there are normal blood levels of iron coffee and tea could affect iron metabolism in the gut. Sodas contain polyphenols which can affect iron levels. When minerals are supplemented very frequently chelated minerals are supplemented. When multivitamin multimineral supplements are taken usually the minerals are chelated. Prenatal formulas very frequently contain chelated minerals. And there is no proof that chelated minerals are equivalent in the gut to non-chelated minerals which are the mineral formulations that have been studied in human clinical trials..

Could lead poisoning have been a factor in the fall of ancient Rome? I would say yes. Besides water from aqueducts wine in ancient Rome also contained high levels of lead.

Covid-19, chelated zinc supplements and the US going off the rails

During the COVID-19 pandemic sale of zinc supplements skyrocketed. Sales of zinc supplement, in response to the pandemic, are projected to hit an estimated $134 million, according to Nutrition Business Journal. Zinc is good for the immune system so adding zinc during the pandemic seems a natural though there is no evidence that supplemental zinc lessens the severity of COVID-19 illnesses.

The point, however, is that supplementing with zinc has increased during the pandemic. Almost all marketed forms of zinc are zinc chelates. I hold that chelated zinc supplements can have very adverse health effects. One can be become ill on chelated zinc supplements where the illness presents as a very profound malaise but where the malaise originates from is not clear.

Bizarre conspiracy theories have arisen and have gathered a mass following. . 5 years ago if someone told a psychiatrist about QANON he or she would have been quickly slotted to a couple of weeks stay on a locked ward of a psychiatric hospital. Now belief in QANON is common. Members of Congress are believers. A former US national security adviser swore allegiance to QANON. While President during the COVID-19 pandemic Donald Trump was taking a zinc supplement. Donald Trump was also drinking lots of diet Coke. And Donald Trump advanced the idea that injecting disinfectant could be a good way to treat COVID. There could be a connection.

Zinc has been extensively clinically tested for various conditions, however, in human clinical trials almost always non-chelated forms of zinc are studied. Non-chelated zinc supplements could have health benefits but individuals are taking chelated zinc supplements. Zinc methionine has been extensively tested in chickens, pigs and calves but as the lives of chickens, pigs and calves are lives of utter malaise the effects of chelated zinc on malaise would not be noticeable in chickens, pigs and calves. The same goes for zinc bisglycinate. However, zinc supplements that are marketed to consumers are 98% chelates and all are excellent chelates. If the supplement says ‘chelated’ the supplement is chelated.

Is the idea that mineral supplements must be available in the gut totally outre? Individuals could say ‘sure for hundreds of millions of years digested minerals were first used in the gut but that is so unnecessary . Look at these absorption studies. We cannot detect any increased malaise in chickens when the chickens are given chelated zinc. Sure, the gut is important but in terms of nutritional needs what goes around comes around.in the gut as well as in life. Systematic absorption will eventually deliver to the gut all the nutrition that the gut needs. Yes, that is so that the gut has turned out to be of key importance but not for minerals, Look at the absorption studies. Basically the gut is of no importance. ‘Increased absorption’ and ‘chelated’ are absolutely winning marketing terms..’

I won’t go into here why I think biotin-containing enzymes are key but I will say that biotin containing enzymes require bicarbonate. Bicarbonate is produced by carbonic anhydrases which are zinc containing enzymes. Carbonic anhydrases are highly expressed in the gut. Carbonic anhydrase 9 is almost exclusively expressed in the gut, liver and gallbladder. Supplementation with zinc sulfate, which is an unchelated form of zinc, increases levels of carbonic anhydrase VI. Carbonic anhydrase VI is almost exclusively expressed in the proximal digestive tract. Bicarbonate is required for pH buffering. pH strongly effects activity of enzymes.

The burden of proof clearly is on showing that chelated zinc supplements, which are largely untested in human clinical trials, are equivalent to unchelated zinc supplements on gut zinc enzymes, for example, on carbonic anhydrase. 9 and 6.

Pluses of the notion than the US has at least partly gone off the rails due to chelated minerals.

1, Everyone says both nature and environment are important. Outside of childhood abuse no one has been able to find relevant environmental factors. Here they are . The US has become increasingly polarized over the last 50 years. The supplement industry has experienced tremendous growth in the last 50 years. Correlation on causation? I think causation is definitely worth exploring and could be explored is a straight forward scientific way.

2. The idea is easily testable an animals. Individuals could even test this at home.. Zinc gluconate could be compared to zinc glycinate or zinc methionine. Might only work for individuals who are not any supplements. There can be huge difficulties with supplements and any added malaise from chelated zinc may not be noticeable if one is on a lot of supplements.

The effect of molybdenum glycinate on gut and liver molybdenum containing enzymes could be compared to the effect of sodium molybdate on gut and liver molybdenum containing enzymes. There are only four molybdenum containing enzymes which would very much simplify the study. Molybdenum glycinate and sodium molybdate would have to be given two times a day at daily Tolerable Upper Level Limits equivalent for rats.

3. This is a difficulty that could easily be fixed. The leftwing is at a loss as what to do about the rightwing and the rightwing is at a loss as to what to do about the leftwing. Zip changes. This could be changed. Individuals when supplementing with minerals could only supplement with unchelated minerals and unchelated minerals can be very helpful.

4, There is no proof than chelated minerals are equivalent in the gut to unchelated minerals and yet the gut has turned out to be of key importance.

5 There is no reason to think than chelated minerals are equivalent in the gut to unchelated minerals.

6.In human clinical trials almost always unchelated minerals are studied. Chelated minerals are largely untested in humans except for some absorption studies. The idea about chelated mineral supplements being deleterious could easily be true. The idea would be expected to be true.

What have I said that is straightforwardly testable?

600 milligrams of carbonyl iron taken at bedtime can treat a psychosis quickly. A huge difficulty is that individuals who are not psychotic can feel wretched.

200 micrograms Se-methylselenocysteine can quickly treat disorganization in schizophrenia. A difficulty here is that a whole lot is askew in schizophrenia.

Chelated minerals are not bioavailable in the gut but supplemented minerals must be bioavailable in the gut. Tests could be done on gut enzymes after chelated mineral supplementation. for example on molybdenum glycinate, compared with non-chelated mineral supplementation.

Individuals taking lithium and anticonvulsant mood stabilizers will have deficiencies in biotin, pantothenic acid and coenzyme A.

CRISPR and schizophrenia

Emmanuelle Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna – awarded the Nobel Prize for work on CRISPR

CRISPR stands for clustered regularly interspersed short palidromic repeats. The key fact about CRISPR is that CRISPR makes gene editing very easy to do. CAS9, which is an enzyme that makes double stranded breaks in DNA, guided by a guide RNA can cut out undesired DNA and then insert desired DNA at any give location in the genome with the DNA strand then put back together via homologous repair. There are difficulties in off target edits with CRISPR but I will not go into that.

How helpful will CRISPR be to schizophrenia?. By and large CRISPR will be no help at all. There are a few rare high impact alleles in schizophrenia that could be edited out but in the vast majority of cases a single gene edit would not even be noticeable. Ten edits would not be noticeable. A hundred edits would hardly be noticeable. And what is more schizophrenia is associated with common alleles which presumably, as evidenced by being common, serve very useful functions.

A lot of polygenetic diseases would be as difficult to gene edit out of existence as schizophrenia would be. The same deal applies to beneficial polygenetic traits. Gene editing for beneficial polygenetic traits would demand way too much gene editing where outcomes would be highly uncertain and could very easily be disastrous . Attempting to gene edit humans genomes to eradicate polygenetic illness or to drive beneficial polygenetic traits is not only immoral but also an error.

A lot of good can be done with edits of single genetic loci. With humans CRISPR should stick to editing single loci where the edited genetic loci has a high impact on an illness or trait.. George Church doing massive edits on elephant DNA could be allowed but humans should be off limits is terms of massive gene edits.

I think many major illnesses can be biohacked at home now. Psychosis and disorganization in schizophrenia being examples. Psychosis and disorganization in schizophrenia are addressable via carbonyl iron and Se-methylselenocysteine. Major depression disorder is addressable via iodide from potassium iodide. Avoiding supplements on the ‘supplements to be avoided’ list on the A Treatment for Schizophrenia page would also be necessary.

Bipolar depression explained

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Bipolar depression is due to dysregulation of the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter. See the page on bipolar depression. Biotin and pantothenic acid, which supposedly no one has deficiencies of unless one spends a couple of years in a concentration camp, can become deficient given the SMVT is dysregulated. Biotin is required for fatty acid synthesis. Even with biotin supplemented non-essential fatty acids are not being synthesized. MCT oil contains medium chain fatty acids that are synthesized right after the biotin-dependent acetyl-CoA carboxylase step. MCT oil is a useful supplement. .There is clearly a difference between MCT oil which is all caprylic acid and MCT oil which is a mixture of caprylic acid and capric acid. Only MCT oi which is a mixture of .caprylic acid and capric acid works.

The SMVT also transports iodide. Iodide from potassium iodine must by supplemented. With the SMVT dysregulated iodide must be transported by SLC5A5 which is strongly expressed in the stomach but not in the rest of the gut. Iodine from kelp would not be available in the stomach. Thyroid tests can be normal and still iodine from potassium iodine must still be supplemented.

Pantothenic kinase is the rate limiting step in the synthesis of coenzyme A. Pantothenic acid regulates pantothenic kinase.

Biotin-containing enzymes require bicarbonate. Sodium bicarbonate could be helpful.

Branched-chain amino acids are supplemented. Biotin-dependent enzymes methylcrotonyl CoA carboxylase and propionyl-CoA carboxylase are involved in the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids.

Biotin, pantothenic acid, MCT oil, sodium bicarbonate, taurine and branched-chain amino acids are taken three times a day. Iodide from potassium iodide is taken once a day. Sodium bicarbonate contains sodium so blood pressure must be watched. Individuals with high blood pressure may not be able to take sodium bicarbonate..The MCT oil should be a mixture of caprylic acid and capric acid.

Lithium blocks the SMVT. Lithium is apparently ‘effective’ via generating biotin and pantothenic acid deficiencies. Biotin and pantothenic acid deficiencies would be expected given individuals are on therapeutic dosages of lithium. John Cade discovered how to treat mania via generating biotin and pantothenic deficiencies. Not a big win for serendipity.

Hypomania – good. Mania – bad. This could result in hypomania or mania. Mania is most definitely to be avoided. As I have said lots of places on this blog 600 mg of carbonyl iron taken at bedtime is a treatment for psychosis. The proposed treatment could result in mania. Elsewhere on this blog I have argued that 600 mg of carbonyl iron taken at bedtime can treat psychosis. 200 micrograms of Se-methylselenocysteine is useful for disorganization.

Clearly the proposed treatment is a lot and would not be started unless biotin, pantothenic acid and/or coenzyme A levels are found to be low in individuals with bipolar depressions who are not taking lithium and/or anticonvulsants. As the treatment could interfere with the actions of lithium and/or anticonvulsants the proposed treatment would not be tried by individuals who are on lithium and/or anticonvulsants. Biotin, pantothenic acid and coenzyme A levels, however, should be checked in individuals who are are on lithium and/or anticonvulsants .

Psychosis and disorganization in schizophrenia – dirt simple to treat quickly and safely

700 milligrams of carbonyl iron taken at bedtime and 200 micrograms of Se-methylselenocysteine taken once a day can treat the psychosis and disorganization present in schizophrenia quickly and safely. Carbonyl iron treats psychosis while Se-methylselenocysteine treats disorganization. Carbonyl iron is a non-toxic form of iron. See also this paper. Though MDs doing clinical trials apparently have access to higher dosage carbonyl iron supplements currently iron carbonyl is marketed in 45 mg. tablets which is a hassle.. Se-methylselnocysteine has anti-cancer properties. Anemia panels are readily available and can be ordered online.. Iron status is easily checked. Iron overload is most definitely to be avoided.. The supplements would not be taken longer than 6 weeks if not effective. Carbonyl iron and Se-methylselenocysteine in all probability will be effective in two or three or days.

Why does carbonyl iron work? Iron-sulfur proteins are dysregulated in schizophrenia due to dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway in schizophrenia. Why does Se-methylselenocysteine work? The transsulfuration pathway which metabolizes L-selenomethionine is dysregulated in schizophrenia.

The debate as to whether billions and billions and billions of dollars should be spent to increase beds in wretched to live in long term facilities would be mooted. The endless debate about how the seriously mentally having no rights is actually a boon to the mentally ill would be mooted. Health care costs would go way down.

No other supplements would be taken. The iron carbonyl must be taken at bedtime away from iron absorption enhancers and iron absorption inhibitors.

Carbonyl iron and Se-methylselenocysteine do not treat depression or negative symptoms which are very difficult to treat. Individuals on carbonyl iron and Se-methylselenocysteine will in all probability still be disabled but they won’t be psychotic or disorganized. Low dosages of a neuroleptic would still be needed to treat a spaced-out feeling. Carbonyl iron and Se-methylselenocysteine taken alone are not a way to get totally off neuroleptics. Unfortunately Individuals can feel wretched without being psychotic.

Tragedies like the tragedies portrayed in this HBO special on schizophrenia need not take place.