There is lots and lots of research on how to increase absorption of minerals. The supplement industry following up on this has formulated mineral supplements to be better absorbed.
My idea that minerals must be available both in the enteric system and systematically to be useful in treating illnesses does not conflict with any biological findings but it goes against what is held as common sense. Every one just knows that the goal with mineral supplements is to increase and enhance absorption. Minerals that are not formulated for increased abosorption can be absorbed and can effectively treat diseases associated with mineral deficiencies. Most of the clinical trials of minerals do not use amino acid chelates.
The assumption with minerals formulated for increased absorption is that somehow proteins in the enteric system watch minerals pass by unused and hold that is totally acceptable. Proteins in the enteric system are willing to go the end of the line and wait for minerals to get back to them. The common sense idea is that the gastrointestinal tract is like a busy 4 way intersection.
Metal proteins in the enteric system could set the stage for metal proteins throughout the body. Systematically metal proteins might not work effectively unless the stage is set by metal proteins in the enteric system working.
High homocysteine levels indicate the transsulfuration pathway (homocysteine to L-cysteine) is dysregulated. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine. Taurine is needed to form various bile acids. Bile acids are needed for fat absorption.
Polyphenols can increase beta-oxidation which can lead to serious difficulties if there are difficulties in fat absorption which are likely if there are high homocysteine levels.
Many illnesses for which polyphenols have been postulated to be treatments are associated with high levels of homocysteine, however, where there are high homocysteine levels there could be difficulties in fatty acid absorption. Increasing levels of polyphenols, which increase beta-oxidation, would be contradicted where there are difficulties in fatty acid absorption and metabolism.
Polyphenol supplements are frequently suggested as treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, however, both Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are associated with high homocyteine levels whereby there could be difficulties in fatty acid absoption. Polyphenol supplements could worsen Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease polyphenols have been full of promise but have failed to deliver effective treatments.
Caffeine pills have nowhere near the same effect as coffee. There must be more to the effects of coffee than caffeine and that something more is the polyphenol contents of coffee and the effect of those polyphenols on beta-oxidation.
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels are low in Alzheimer’s disease. DHA is synthesized from alpha-linoelic acid which is an essential fatty acid which must be obtained from the diet. For DHA to be synthesized from alpha-linoelic acid, alpha linoleic acid must first be absorbed.
A meta-analysis indicates that homocysteine levels are significantly high in Alzheimer’s disease. High homocysteine levels in Alzheimer’s disease indicate the transsulfuration pathway is dysregulated in Alzheimer’s disease as homocysteine is not being metabolized to L-cysteine which is what the transsulfuration pathway does.
With low levels of L-cysteine there will be low levels of taurine. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine. Taurine is needed for the formation of bile acids which are needed for fat absorption. With alpha-linoelic acid not absorbed in Alzheimer’s disease due to low levels of taurine synthesis of DHA will be impaired in Alzheimer’s disease which is what is seen is Alzheimer’s disease. Effectiveness of supplementation with DHA in Alzheimer’s disease could be limited due to a failure to absorb DHA due to low levels of taurine in Alzheimer’s disease.
Taurine only poorly crosses the blood-brain barrier. However, to assist with essential fatty acid absorption taurine does not have to cross the blood-barrier. Taurine by enhancing fat absorption can enhance brain function.
Homotaurine has has been shown to be a promising therapy for Alzheimer’s disease. In Alzheimer’s disease taurine could be taken with with fatty acid supplements high in alpha linoelic acid, such as lignan free flax seed oil. Lignans are polyphenols so flax seed oil with lignans is avoided.
Inflammation is associated with schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease. A point I have strongly stressed is that the transsulfuration pathway is dysregulated in many neurological illnesses. With the transsulfuration pathway dysregulated there will de decreased levels of L-cysteine which is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway. Decreased levels of l-cysteine will lead to decreased levels of taurine. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine. The bile acid, taurocholate, is synthesized from taurine. With low levels of taurine, essential fatty acids are not absorbed sufficiently. Inflammation in schizophrenia, Parkinson’s disease and Alsheimer’s disease could be due to low levels of taurine which leads to failures to absorb sufficient fatty acids with inflammation resulting.
Taurine chloramine which is synthesized from taurine is also an important immunomodulatory.