An exclusive focus on absorption of minerals is at odds with the gut being a key to various illnesses

The gut has become a primary focus of a lot of research on various illnesses. The gut has become a focus in research on major depressive disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, autism, anxiety, Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s disease, osteoporosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis etc.

Yet the key selling point of most mineral supplements is increased absorption with increased absorption demanding that the gut be bypassed. Moreover almost all clinical studies done on humans employ inorganic forms of minerals rather than chelated organic forms of minerals. ‘Zinc gluconate human‘ turned up 560 results in Pubmed whereas ‘zinc methionine human, turned up 11 results where there were two human trials with an equivocal result in one of the trials and a positive result on a narrow measure of reduced acne in the other.

Individuals taking organic chelated mineral supplements are venturing into unknown lands and I think dangerous lands. Chelated minerals are highly absorbed but that is a bug not a feature.

Selenium and the thyroid gland

l thyroid gland

The human thyroid gland has the highest selenium content per gram of tissue among all organs.The iodothyronine deiodinases (DIO1,2,3), are selenoproteins. Glutathione peroxidase and thioredoxin reductase are selenoproteins that are involved in protection of the thyroid from hydrogen peroxide.

The first step in the synthesis of thyroid hormones is catalyzed by thyroid peroxidase which requires hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide used by thyroid peroxidase is produced by dual oxidase 1 and dual oxidase 2. Hydrogen peroxide is both required for thyroid hormone synthesis but also can be toxic to the thyroid gland. Selenium is required both for thyroid hormone synthesis and protection of the thyroid from hydrogen peroxide needed to synthesize thyroid hormones. .

Biohack mental illness now!

l CRISPR DIY kit not required

A lot of biohacking does not appear to be safe. For example, trying to alter at home one’s genetic makeup via CRISPR seems beyond unsafe.

A lot of biohacking is undertaken to achieve increased longevity. Biohacking for increase longevity requires that one wait around for decades to see the results. One has to wait 30 or 40 years to see whether one selected a right mix of supplements and then in all probability if one lives to a healthy 100 years of age one would not know exactly which supplements were the key supplements. Knowledge as to what increases longevity would still be lacking. One could be interviewed with questions asked as to how longevity was achieved and a laundry list of supplements would then be detailed. Someone listening to the interview could say, ‘I will eat 3 strips of bacon every morning. The other guy eats three strips of bacon every morning and is an alert, healthy 102 year old.’

A lot of specialty nootropics taken for cognitive enhancement have unclear effects and have not been widely tested in clinical trials . Moreover most nootropics are likely manufactured in China which does not have a reputation for tight controls on drug manufacture. What is more there would be a huge mainstream market for nootropics given noontropics worked. Individuals with mental illnesses very frequently could use some cognitive enhancement but nootropics are not being prescribed. After decades of use and study use of nootropics appears to be a very sketchy practice.

The appeal now of becoming part cyborg is 98% aesthetic. Becoming part cyborg now does not result in cognitive enhancements or health enhancements.

Biohacking mental illness

I hold that a lot of mental illness can be biohacked now, this week. 600 milligrams of carbonyl iron taken once a day at bedtime away from other supplements, food and drinks except water can treat psychosis. Iron interacts with lots of substances, coffee and tea being two examples. The point of taking the carbonyl iron at bedtime is to take the iron away from substances that can interfere with iron metabolism in the gut. The last cup of coffee or cup of tea of the day is drunk at least 6 or 7 hours before carbonyl iron is taken. 200 micrograms of Se-methylselenocysteine taken once a day in the morning. can treat disorganization. Cocoa butter. taken three times a day away from iron is very helpful. Difficulties in the transport of biotin could lead to difficulties in the synthesis of saturated fatty acids, Difficulties in synthesis of saturated fatty acids could be addressed by supplementation with cocoa butter. MCT oil and olive oil do not work.

Cons

I hold that iron-sulfur proteins are dysregulated in schizophrenia and that 600 milligrams of carbonyl iron taken once a day at bedtime can address the psychosis of schizophrenia. There is no direct clinical evidence that iron-sulfur proteins are dysregulated in schizophrenia. Given iron-sulfur proteins were dysregulated in schizophrenia this would cause major difficulties where psychosis could be one such difficulty.

There is no clinical evidence Se-methylselenocysteine effectively treats cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia.

Pros

Dirt simple and very quick. Very safe for at least a week. If the treatment has not worked at the end of week the treatment would be stopped. If the treatment is effective then safety of the supplements can be studied further and necessary tests obtained.

A lot of research I have cited cited on the website and in papers points to iron-sulfur cluster formation and selenoprotein metabolism being dysregulated in various neurological illnesses. Dysregulation of the SMVT which has been repeatedly addressed in this blog could result in dysregulation of saturated fatty acid synthesis which could certainly result in depressive illnesses.

There could a difficulty in synthesis of saturated fatty acids due to biotin deficiencies which supplementation with cocoa butter.could address. Difficulties in the transport of biotin could lead to difficulties in the synthesis of saturated fatty acids.

Not dangerous for at least a week. Would not be taken longer than a week if not effective.

Gut microbiota and mental illness

I have been arguing on this blog that supplements have to be available in the gastrointestinal tract as well as systematically for supplements to be helpful. There has been a growing realization that what happens in the gut can have a huge impact on mental health. See these reviews Microbes and mental health: A review; Harnessing Gut Microbes for Mental Health: Getting From Here to There and Brain-Gut-Microbiota Axis and Mental Health.

If supplements are not available in the gastrointestinal tract this cannot but affect gut microbiota differently compared to supplements that are available in the gastrointestinal tract. I am open to the possibility that differences in gut microbiota can play a big role in mental states, however, the gut could also be set up so the gut has to use nutrients when nutients first pass through the gut. Use of nutrients by the gut could be a necessary first step in the use of nutrients systematically.

There is a lot of talk about how the diet of our very distant ancestors is the diet that is appropriate for us. One thing is certain about the diet of our very distant ancestors. Our very distant ancestors did not take nutrients than were formulated not to be available in the gut.

Bone mineral density and major depression

Decreased bone mineral density is associated with major depression. There are also low vitamin D levels in individuals who are depressed. Ahedonia in major depression could be due to hidden osteomalicias. Taurine, vitamin D and vitamin K could treat hidden osteomalacias present in major depression. Supplements used to treat hidden osteomalicias, would not be effective for intense sadnesses that frequently occur with major depressions.

Major depressive disorder and taurine

Ketamine is being used in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Ketamine is a glutamate NMDA receptor antagonist. A ‘modulating ‘effect of ketamine on NMDA receptors has been stated as giving rise an antidepressant effect of ketamine in major depressive disorder.

Glutamate toxicity due to calcium influx through L-, P/Q-, N-type voltage-gated calcium channels and NMDA receptor calcium channels is inhibited by taurine with taurine having a neuroprotective effect. Addressing glutamatergic neurotransmission via taurine is much preferable to addressing glutamatergic neurotransmission via ketamine. Research points to supplemental taurine as reducing homocysteine levels (Ahn, 2009), reducing cholesterol levels in animals (Guo et al., 2017; Chen et al., 2012) having an anti-obesity effect, as being negatively associated with ischemic heart disease, as ameliorating diabetes and points to taurine deficiencies as resulting in premature aging. Research on rats points to ketamine resulting in dysregulations in the prefrontal cortex that persist even after ketamine withdrawal. Taurine supplemented alone is not a highly effective treatment for depression