Why would there be a gut-brain axis?

The gut has the highest exposure to the environment of any organ. The gut-brain axis could assist with appropriate environmental regulation of behavior. Prior to 5000 years ago the environments given individuals lived in were basically stable though those such environment varied across the Earth. What individuals placed into their mouths was an accurate reflection of the environments they lived in whereby the gut-brain axis assisted individuals adapting to environments lived in.

What individuals place into their mouths today has very little connection to the locality such individuals are living in. Now individuals place into their mouths junk food, sodas, chemicals, supplements, coffee and tea from very distant places. A main site of actions of junk food, sodas, chemicals, supplements, coffee and tea would be the gut whereby the brain would be affected.

Williams James held that emotions were cognitive readings of bodily states which is going too far. However, basal states of individuals could be very closely tied to the basal states of the environment where the environment can partly but strongly act on individuals via the gut-brain axis. Junk food, sodas, chemicals, supplements, coffee and tea could be affecting the brain quite directly.

An appropriate diet would demand that there be no attempt to escape the gut. As an example supplements formulated for better absorption would not be supplemented. Pharmacokinetics considerations used with pharmaceuticals could be very misleading when used with nutrients and foods generally. Processing of nutrients in the gut could be a key part of nutrients being nutrients. The adverse affects of refined sugars would be an example of ingested substances not being nutrients via a bypassing of carbohydrate processing in the gut.

A fundamental rule of nutrition

Supplements or drinks with tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates should be avoided though supplements with alpha ketoglutarate could be helpful. TET enzymes are 2-oxoglutarate dependent.enzymes that demethylate DNA. JmjC domain-containing proteins are 2-oxoglutarate dependent.enzymes that demethylate histones .Fumarate and succinate inhibit TET and JmjC domain-containing proteins. This could lead to DNA hypermethylation and histone hypermethylation. Malic acid could inhibit fumarate dehydratase by end product inhibition and lead to a build up of fumarate.

Accumulation of succinate and fumarate are associated with cancer due the inhibition of 2-oxoglutarate-dependent dioxygenases, such as TET and JmjC-domain containing proteins. Citrate is a competitive inhibitor of oxaloacetate for citrate synthase. Citrate synthase also produces coenzyme A which is needed by the 2-oxoglutarate complex. Citric acid from soft drinks could dysregulate the the 2-oxoglutarate complex. There is a lot of circumstantial evidence that citric acid has goofy effects on individuals witness Mountain Dew ads.

A lot of supplements contain tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Calcium citrate contains citrate. Magnesium succinate contains succincate. Carnitine fumarate contains. fumarate. Citruline malate contains malate, TCA intermediates are everywhere is supplements.

But as always the key selling point of supplements is ‘better absorption’ and minerals, for example, minerals bound to citrate, can be well absorbed. A huge and very frequently deleterious factor not usually considered is what supplements are bound to. ‘Better absorption’ is the siren call of supplements. Chelated minerals are also avoided.