There are decreases in bone mineral densityin drug naive individuals with bipolar disorder compared to age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Individuals with bipolar I disorder have have high homocysteine levels. High homocysteine levels in individuals with bipolar disorder point to the transsulfuration pathway being dysregulated. Via thetranssulfuration pathway L-cysteine is synthesized from homocysteine.L-taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine.
Taurine is required for calcium homeostasis. Taurine, also, is conjugated to various bile acids. Bile acids are are required for absorption offat-soluble vitamins. Vitamin Dand vitamin Kare fat-soluble vitamins. Individuals with bipolar disorder are 4.7 times more likely to be vitamin D deficient than individuals amongst the general population of the Netherlands, however, deficient levels of vitamin D are not specific to bipolar disorder but are also present in individuals with schizophrenia. The taurine transporter is present in osteoblasts. Osteoblasts synthesize bone.
With taurine metabolism dysregulated calcium homeostasis is dysregulated and absorption of vitamin D and vitamin K is decreased. Decreases in bone mineral density in bipolar disorder could be due to dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway which dysregulates calcium homeostasis and vitamin D and vitamin K absorption resulting in low bone mineral density.
Decreased bone mineral density is associated with major depression. There are also low vitamin D levels in individuals who are depressed. Ahedonia in major depression could be due to hidden osteomalicias. Taurine, vitamin D and vitamin K could treat hidden osteomalacias present in major depression. Supplements used to treat hidden osteomalicias, would not be effective for intense sadnesses that frequently occur with major depressions.
A meta-analysispoints to bone mineral density being significantly decreased in individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Bone mineral density in schizophrenia could be decreased in individuals with schizophrenia due to dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine which is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway.
Taurine is required for intracellular calcium homeostasis. Bile acids are required for absorption of fat soluble vitamins.Vitamin D and vitamin Kare fat soluble vitamins involved in bone formation. Various bile acidsare synthesized from taurine. With deficiencies of taurine calcium homeostasis can be upset and there can also be deficiencies of vitamin D and vitamin K which could lead to low bone mineral density in schizophrenia.
Low bone mineral density in schizophrenia point to there being hidden osteomalicias in schizophrenia. With taurine deficiencies intracellular calcium homeostasis can be upset, though extracellular calcium levels could be normal, leading to a hidden osteomalicias.
Dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway can result in epigenetic changes whereby there could be localized osteomalacias. Given osteomalacias due to taurine deficiencies develop in the back of the head negative symptoms of schizophrenia could develop due to compressions of cerebellums. There are a wide range of symptoms in schizophrenia so individuals with schizophrenia do not present as only having back of the head pains which makes correct diagnoses difficult though x-ray studies of backs of skulls in individuals with symptoms of schizophrenia could go a long ways in making correct diagnoses straightforward.
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia could be treated by supplementation with taurine, Vitamin K2 MK-7, which a kind of vitamin K that is highly absorbed, and vitamin D3. As negative symptoms of schizophrenia are due to hidden osteomalicias taurine, vitamin K2 MK-7 could take a long while to be completely effective. To treat the range of symptoms seen is schizophrenia due to dysregulations of the transsulfuration pathway supplements, beyond supplements that treat hidden osteomalicias, are required.
Hidden oosteomalacia due to dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis arising from low levels of taurine stemming from dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway .could be wide spread. In individuals with schizohpenia there could be hidden osteomalacia that do not show as back pain but could affect necks compressing cerebellums leading to severe psychological effects. Calcium blood levels could be low normal or slightly low.
Some x-ray studies of bones is the neck region are called for in schizophrenia. If cerebellums are being compressed by a hidden osteomalacia treatmens for a range of psychological symptoms in schizophrenia could be much, much different. Taurine, vitamin D, vitamin K and calcium carbonate could treat the hidden osteomalicia addressing structural and functional brain abnormalties in schizophrenia. Bone mineral densities are lower in older indivduals with schizophrenia compared to indivduals without schizophrenia. Early diagnosis would be a key.
With cerebellums compressed there could negative symptoms of schizohrenia. Negative symptoms are are deficit symptoms where such deficits could be due to deficits in the ability of the cerebellum to function due to being compressed from hidden osteomalacia.
Over the last few decades there have been huge controversies about whether there are widespread vitamin D deficiencies and whether vitamin D supplementation could prevent many chronic illnesses. Dr. Michael Holick holds there is a vitamin D deficiency pandemic. Dr. Holick points to association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders.
However, a umbrella studythat addressed meta-analyses that addressed studies where vitamin D supplements were given did not show much effectiveness in terms of outcomes when vitamin D was supplemented.
The views of Dr. Holick on vitamin D are a lot more correct than incorrect. Taurine, however. is required for calcium homeostasis. See also this paper. See also this paper. With eficiencies in taurine calcium homeostasis is upset. With taurine deficiencies individuals can develop severe bone absormalities even where vitamin D levels are normal.
The umbrella study as to the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation alone is also correct. Supplementation with vitamin D alone is not enough to treat ts dysregulations of calcium homeostasis due to deficiencies in taurine. To treat dysregularities in calcium homeostasis due to deficiencies in taurine, L-taurine must be supplemented with vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 MK-7. Calcium citrate is avoided.
As it turns out lots of backaches are due to a hidden osteomalacia. With low levels of taurine fine control of intracellular calcium homoestasis is lost. Calcium blood levels can be normal or just slightly low and one can still have a severe case of osteomalicia. Osteomalacia refers to a marked softening of the bones, most often caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. Severe vitamin D deficiencies can result in poor absorption of calcium which can lead to softening of the bones.
Taurine is required for calcium homeostasis. See also this paper. See also this paper. With taurine deficiencies fine control of intracellular calcium homesostasis is lost which can lead to a hidden osteomalicia as calcium levels are normal or very near normal.
The treatment for bach ache would be to take taurine, vitamin D, calcium carbonate. and vitamin K (MK-7). Vitamin K is also a fat soluble whose absorption could be impaired by low levels of taurine. Vitamin K in the form of MK-7 is much better absorbed than other forms of vitamin K. Vitamin D, vitamin K (MK-7) and calcium carbonate would be taken with food for better absorption while taurine would be taken on an empty stomach for better absorption. The right supplements could be very helpful in treating back pain.
Each cell has the same DNA. As this is the case there must be ways for cells to differentiate from other cells while all cells have the same DNA. In different cell types different genes are translated which is achieved by genes in different cell types having different epigenetic marks. Epigenetic marks on genes can increase or decrease transcription of genes. DNA methylation and histone methylation are two ways genes can be epigenetically marked and thereby transcription of genes affected. There are various other ways that genes can be epigenetically marked. Environment can affect what epigenetic marks are on genes.
With genetic diseases there is systematic evidence of genetic anomalies. Take any cell from the body and genes in that cell will show the genetic anomaly. For example, blood tests can be used to detect genetic anomalies With epigenetic diseases, however, there is no genetic evidence of the disease and dysregulations do not have to be systematic whereby bloods tests might not be revealing.
Vitamin D is now suspected to play a part in lots of illnesses and I think this is correct but with epigenetic anomalies there need not be any genetic anomalies though there is still disease. The last step in the formation of calcitriol, which is active vitamin D, by CYP27B1 requires an iron-sulfur protein called adrenodoxin. Due to difficulties in forming iron-sulfur clusters there will be low levels of adrenodoxin whereby there are low levels of calcitriol. Giving calcitriol alone, however, is not sufficient to treat many illnesses where there is evidence of calcitriol deficiencies. With iron-sulfur proteins dysregulated a lot of processes besides the formation of calcitriol will also be adversely affected.
There not being diseases associated with aberrant epigenetic marks is basically impossible given the large part that epigenetics plays in regulations of cells. I think schizophrenia is an illness associated with epigenetic dysgulations, an illness in which there are deficiencies of vitamin D but which is basically non-responsive to calcitriol.