Cortical thickness and antipsychotics

Cortical thickness is negatively correlated with normalized antipsychotic dosage with first generation antipsychotics having an especially negative effect on cortical thickness. The negative effect of antipsychotics on cortical thickness provides additional grounds for using antipsychotics in the lowest feasible dosage. Individuals with schizophrenia not on antipsychotics have decreased cortical thinning compared to individuals with schizophrenia on antipsychotics.. Cortical thickness effect sizes were two to three times larger in individuals receiving antipsychotic medication relative to unmedicated individuals. See also Antipsychotic Effects on Cortical Morphology in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorders. Antipsychotics are flat out toxic to brains.

Taurine and neurotransmitter sodium symporters

Taurine regulates intracellular sodium levels. Long term supplemental taurine decreases levels of intracellular sodium. That taurine can affect intracellular sodium levels is clear. What is not clear is the effect of taurine on various sodium-dependent transporters. I have argued than low taurine levels by affecting sodium levels can dysregulate the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter.

Neurotransmitter sodium symporters, which co-transport a neurotransmitter and sodium, among other molecules transport taurine, GABA, dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline. Taurine is clearly involved in calcium homeostasis. Taurine could also be involved in sodium homeostasis.

Dysregulation of sodium homeostasis could dysregulate the transport of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA which play large roles in the regulation of mood. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and anioxylitcs target serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and GABA. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and anioxylitcs could be called for now in the treatment of mental illness due to dysregulation of sodium homeostasis which dysregulates dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA.

Quite frequently individuals with major mental illnesses will take medications that affect dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA. Dysregulation of sodium homeostasis could underlie the need by individuals with major mental illnesses to take medications from all three major classes of drugs used to treat mental illness. Supplemental taurine could help with re-regulation of sodium homeostasis. No argument is being made that only dysregulation of sodium homeostasis is the biological basis of major mental illnesses.