A meta-analysispoints to bone mineral density being significantly decreased in individuals with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Bone mineral density in schizophrenia could be decreased in individuals with schizophrenia due to dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine which is synthesized via the transsulfuration pathway.
Taurine is required for intracellular calcium homeostasis. Bile acids are required for absorption of fat soluble vitamins.Vitamin D and vitamin Kare fat soluble vitamins involved in bone formation. Various bile acidsare synthesized from taurine. With deficiencies of taurine calcium homeostasis can be upset and there can also be deficiencies of vitamin D and vitamin K which could lead to low bone mineral density in schizophrenia.
Low bone mineral density in schizophrenia point to there being hidden osteomalicias in schizophrenia. With taurine deficiencies intracellular calcium homeostasis can be upset, though extracellular calcium levels could be normal, leading to a hidden osteomalicias.
Dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway can result in epigenetic changes whereby there could be localized osteomalacias. Given osteomalacias due to taurine deficiencies develop in the back of the head negative symptoms of schizophrenia could develop due to compressions of cerebellums. There are a wide range of symptoms in schizophrenia so individuals with schizophrenia do not present as only having back of the head pains which makes correct diagnoses difficult though x-ray studies of backs of skulls in individuals with symptoms of schizophrenia could go a long ways in making correct diagnoses straightforward.
Negative symptoms of schizophrenia could be treated by supplementation with taurine, Vitamin K2 MK-7, which a kind of vitamin K that is highly absorbed, and vitamin D3. As negative symptoms of schizophrenia are due to hidden osteomalicias taurine, vitamin K2 MK-7 could take a long while to be completely effective. To treat the range of symptoms seen is schizophrenia due to dysregulations of the transsulfuration pathway supplements, beyond supplements that treat hidden osteomalicias, are required.
Osteoblasts are involved in bone formation. Osteoclasts break down bone. Dysregulation of calcium homeostasis in osteoblasts and osteoclasts could lead to bone abnormalities. In the forward mode of the Na/calium exchanger calcium is effluxed from cells while in reverse mode there is an influx of calcium into cells via the Na/calcium exchanger.
Taurine inhibits the reverse mode of the Na/calcium exchanger. The Na/calcium exchanger (NCX) is expressedin osteoblasts. The taurine transporter is expressed in osteoblasts. In osteoblasts inhibting the reverse mode of the Na/calcium exchanger would increase calcium net efflux from osteoblasts which would increase bone formation. Taurine inhibits osteoclastogenesis through the taurine transporter. In osteoclasts inhibiting the reveres mode of the Na/calicum exchanger would inhibit the influx of calcium into osteoclasts from bone which would inhibit bone resorption.
Extracellular calcium levels are very tightly controlled and are very, very frequently tested. However intracellular homeostasis of calcium in osteoblasts and osteoclasts could be very imporant as to whethere there is bone bone growth or bone resorption. Taurine is involved in calcium homeostasis in cells. Taurine both increases bone growth and inhibits bone resorption. The positive effects of taurine on bone fomation could be via the inhibition of the reverse mode of the Na/calcium exchanger in osteoblasts and osteoclasts.
Taurine regulates intracellular sodium levels. Long term supplemental taurine decreases levels of intracellular sodium. That taurine can affect intracellular sodium levels is clear. What is not clear is the effect of taurine on various sodium-dependent transporters. I have argued than low taurine levels by affecting sodium levels can dysregulate the sodium-dependent multivitamin transporter.
Neurotransmitter sodium symporters, which co-transport a neurotransmitter and sodium, among other molecules transport taurine, GABA, dopamine, serotonin and noradrenaline. Taurine is clearly involved in calcium homeostasis. Taurine could also be involved in sodium homeostasis.
Dysregulation of sodium homeostasis could dysregulate the transport of dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA which play large roles in the regulation of mood. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and anioxylitcs target serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline and GABA. Antidepressants, antipsychotics and anioxylitcs could be called for now in the treatment of mental illness due to dysregulation of sodium homeostasis which dysregulates dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA.
Quite frequently individuals with major mental illnesses will take medications that affect dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline and GABA. Dysregulation of sodium homeostasis could underlie the need by individuals with major mental illnesses to take medications from all three major classes of drugs used to treat mental illness. Supplemental taurine could help with re-regulation of sodium homeostasis. No argument is being made that only dysregulation of sodium homeostasis is the biological basis of major mental illnesses.
Over the last few decades there have been huge controversies about whether there are widespread vitamin D deficiencies and whether vitamin D supplementation could prevent many chronic illnesses. Dr. Michael Holick holds there is a vitamin D deficiency pandemic. Dr. Holick points to association of vitamin D deficiency with a myriad of acute and chronic illnesses including preeclampsia, childhood dental caries, periodontitis, autoimmune disorders, infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, deadly cancers, type 2 diabetes and neurological disorders.
However, a umbrella studythat addressed meta-analyses that addressed studies where vitamin D supplements were given did not show much effectiveness in terms of outcomes when vitamin D was supplemented.
The views of Dr. Holick on vitamin D are a lot more correct than incorrect. Taurine, however. is required for calcium homeostasis. See also this paper. See also this paper. With eficiencies in taurine calcium homeostasis is upset. With taurine deficiencies individuals can develop severe bone absormalities even where vitamin D levels are normal.
The umbrella study as to the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation alone is also correct. Supplementation with vitamin D alone is not enough to treat ts dysregulations of calcium homeostasis due to deficiencies in taurine. To treat dysregularities in calcium homeostasis due to deficiencies in taurine, L-taurine must be supplemented with vitamin D3 and vitamin K2 MK-7. Calcium citrate is avoided.