CACNA1C (Cav1.2) and psychiatric disease

The calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit is a protein that is encoded by the CACNA1C gene. Via calcium channels calcium influxes into cells. Mutations in CACNA1C are associated with bipolar disorder, depression, schizophrenia and autism. Gain of function mutations in CACNA1C are associated with disease, for example, autism.

Taurine regulates intracellular calcium levels by preventing influxes of calcium into cells but not effluxes of calcium out of cells. Via regulating influxes of calcium into cells taurine has a role in the treatment of psychiatric disorders that are in part due to gain of function mutations in CACNA1C.

The cerebellum and schizophrenia

The cerebellum sits at the bottom back of the brain. A meta-analysis indicates there are structural and functional abnormalties in the cerebellum in schizophrenia.

Intraellular calcium homeostasis is regulated by taurine. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine wihch is synthesized from homocsysteine via the transsulfuration pathway.

Hidden oosteomalacia due to dysregulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis arising from low levels of taurine stemming from dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway .could be wide spread. In individuals with schizohpenia there could be hidden osteomalacia that do not show as back pain but could affect necks compressing cerebellums leading to severe psychological effects. Calcium blood levels could be low normal or slightly low.

Some x-ray studies of bones is the neck region are called for in schizophrenia. If cerebellums are being compressed by a hidden osteomalacia treatmens for a range of psychological symptoms in schizophrenia could be much, much different. Taurine, vitamin D, vitamin K and calcium carbonate could treat the hidden osteomalicia addressing structural and functional brain abnormalties in schizophrenia. Bone mineral densities are lower in older indivduals with schizophrenia compared to indivduals without schizophrenia. Early diagnosis would be a key.

With cerebellums compressed there could negative symptoms of schizohrenia. Negative symptoms are are deficit symptoms where such deficits could be due to deficits in the ability of the cerebellum to function due to being compressed from hidden osteomalacia.

The weakness of safety testing of supplements

Almost always clinical trials of supplements are run for short periods of time and moreover only certain side-effects are examined. Supplements programs though very frequently modified are usually started with the intention of being on the supplement for life. I think, for example that acetyl-L-cysteine and lipoic acid can have terrible long term effects though there could be postive effects on some dimensions in the short term. With prescription drugs doctors report side-effects that develop over the long term but that is not the case with supplements as usually doctors do not prescribe supplements.

Carnitine is frequently bound to fumarate in carnitine supplements and mineral supplements are very, very frequently bound to glycine. Fumarate can inhibit enzymes that demethylate DNA and histones. Leiomyomatosis and renal cell cancer can be caused by mutations of fumarate hydratase which metabolizes fumarate. Carnitine fumarate suppplements could be making wild epigenetic changes which could be highly undesirable. My opinion which must now be deeemed a personal opinion is that minerals bound to glycine are not bioavalable in the gastrointestinal tract whereby gylicnated minerals can have many negative effects. On many systematic measures glycinated minerals are very effective though I personally hold there can be higly unforeseen negative effects when supplementing with glycinated minerals.

There is mounting evidence that both sugar sweented and diet drinks have negative effects on cardiovascular health over the long term. What if it is not the artificial sweeteners in diet drinks that raise the difficulties but rather the citric acid and polyphenols and perhaps phosphoric acid are what is raising the difficulties? Many calcium supplements contain citrate. Could calicum citrate have the same adverse effects on cardiovascular health as do diet soft drinks and for the same reasons? I think citric acid based soft drinks can befuddle indivduals. There could be truth in advertising with Mountain Dew. Women under 65 who are on calcium citrate are not going to tell their doctors that they feel befudded and besides increasisng citric intake can lead to lots of fun.

Linus Pauling, who viewed orthormolecular medicine as the practice of delivering ‘the right molecules in the right amounts’, was correct in his view that mental illnesses are orthomolecular in nature and that supplements are required in the treatment of mental illnesses. That is not to say that supplements are not a minefield now.

A secret of the ages

As it turns out lots of backaches are due to a hidden osteomalacia. With low levels of taurine fine control of intracellular calcium homoestasis is lost. Calcium blood levels can be normal or just slightly low and one can still have a severe case of osteomalicia. Osteomalacia refers to a marked softening of the bones, most often caused by severe vitamin D deficiency. Severe vitamin D deficiencies can result in poor absorption of calcium which can lead to softening of the bones.

Taurine is required for calcium homeostasis. See also this paper. See also this paper. With taurine deficiencies fine control of intracellular calcium homesostasis is lost which can lead to a hidden osteomalicia as calcium levels are normal or very near normal.

The treatment for bach ache would be to take taurine, vitamin D, calcium carbonate. and vitamin K (MK-7). Vitamin K is also a fat soluble whose absorption could be impaired by low levels of taurine. Vitamin K in the form of MK-7 is much better absorbed than other forms of vitamin K. Vitamin D, vitamin K (MK-7) and calcium carbonate would be taken with food for better absorption while taurine would be taken on an empty stomach for better absorption. The right supplements could be very helpful in treating back pain.