Different binding affinities of different polyphenols with iron

Different polyphenols have different binding affinities to iron apparently due to different levels of iron-binding galloyl groups in different polyphenols. The polyphenols in foods with high levels of polyphenols would also bind iron at higher levels than polyphenols of foods with low levels of polyphenols. The point is that different foods with different kinds of polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols can have different affects on iron. However, if all iron is basically complexed with polyphenols due to coffee, tea and/or sodas then foods with different polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols might not make a difference. Fruits and vegetables would seem not to be delivering the real thing as well as Coca-Cola. The particular delights of different fruits and vegetables could be lost in a diet is high in coffee, tea and/or sodas. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely related to all-cause mortality. Mental well-being is associated with high levels of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Diets high in coffee, tea and/or sodas could bias individuals against healthy diets.

A direct connection between the gut and brain and mood is widely accepted now. How signals are sent from the gut to brain and how those signals affect mood has not been clearly established. Levels of aconitase 1 in the gut, activity of the TCA cycle in the gut and regulation of iron regulated proteins could play a large role in that connection.

Coffee and homocysteine

Filtered or unfiltered coffee increases homocysteine levels in healthy individuals whereas caffeine has a much weaker effect on homocysteine levels. Stopping drinking coffee reduces homocysteine levels.

Increased homocysteine levels point to decreased levels of L-cysteine which is synthesized from homocysteine. With decreased synthesis of L-cysteine iron-sulfur cluster formation could be dysregulated which could upset many biological processes. Increased homocysteine levels could could affect DNA methylation. In schizophrenia there is a positive association between plasma homocysteine and DNA methylation. Difficulties due to coffee could take years to develop due to hypermethylation of genes taking years to develop.