Ketogenic diets and beta-oxidation

A ketogenic diet is not advisable as a ketogenic diet would increase beta-oxidation. Low carbohydrate diets could result in weight loss but the side-effects are too great. No one would have weight problems if ketogenic diets improved health. Individuals could live with the bland ketogenic diets. Ketogenic diets, unless used to treat epilepsy, are ill advised. There still could be benefits from avoiding high glycemic foods, especially as long as ketosis is avoided.

Increased beta-oxidation sounds terrific. Rev up metabolism, increase energy, burn fats, loose weight, work hard, play hard, live life to the fullest. However increased beta-oxidation where there is already excessive beta oxidation due to decreases is biotin transport can lead to serious difficulties. See the page on bipolar disorder as to why there could be difficulties in biotin transport.

A warning sign that one should definitely avoid a ketogenic diet is if one is addicted to coffee, tea and/or sodas. Another warning sign that a ketogenic diet should be avoided is if one has any chronic illness.

In medicine ideas that should work but do not work are terrible ideas to put into practice. Ketogenic diets do not work in terms of overall health. Antioxidant supplements still make a lot of scientific sense outside the clinic but do not work and antioxidant supplements that deliver free antioxidants should be avoided. In medicine, a truth which is almost invariably correct, is that when the correct answer is not known then the provided ‘answers’ are usually very far from the truth and can be very dangerous. The best briefs in medicine are always fails in clinics.

Polyphenols, homocysteine, Parkinson’s disease and Alzheimer’s disease

High homocysteine levels indicate the transsulfuration pathway (homocysteine to L-cysteine) is dysregulated. Taurine is synthesized from L-cysteine. Taurine is needed to form various bile acids. Bile acids are needed for fat absorption.

Polyphenols can increase beta-oxidation which can lead to serious difficulties if there are difficulties in the metabolism of fatty acids which are likely if there are high homocysteine levels.

Many illnesses for which polyphenols have been postulated to be treatments are associated with high levels of homocysteine, however, where there are high homocysteine levels there could be difficulties in fatty acid metabolism. Increasing levels of polyphenols, which increase beta-oxidation, would be contradicted where there are difficulties in fatty acid metabolism.

Polyphenol supplements are frequently suggested as treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease, however, both Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease are associated with high homocyteine levels whereby there could be difficulties in fatty acid metabolism. Polyphenol supplements could worsen Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease polyphenols have been full of promise but have failed to deliver effective treatments.

Caffeine pills have nowhere near the same effect as coffee. There must be more to the effects of coffee than caffeine and that something more is the polyphenol contents of coffee and the effect of those polyphenols on beta-oxidation.

Adverse affects from polyphenol extracts could appear to be various mysterious allergies or hypersensitivities

Polyphenol extracts are everywhere. Natural flavors are polyphenol extracts. Sodas contain polyphenols from natural flavors. Various plant oils contain concentrated polyphenols. A lot of softgels contain soybean oil which contains polyphenols. Lecithin is made from soybeans. Various supplements are marketed on the very basis that such supplements contain polyphenols, for example quercetin, pycnogenol and resveratrol. Coffee and tea contain polyphenols. Almost all frozen foods will contain soy and/or natural flavors. Polyphenol extracts are a major difficulty.

This is starting to sound about as bad as ‘electromagnetic hypersensitivity’ in terms of being able to escape the difficulty. Cases of ‘electromagnetic hypersensitivity’ could in fact be adverse reactions to polyphenol extracts and concentrated polyphenols.

Adverse reactions to polyphenols are not immune responses. A difficulty with polyphenols is that polyphenols bind to iron. Polyphenols binding to iron in the gut could lead to inactivation of aconitase 1 in the gut which could have systematic effects.

I have been very strongly stressing the effect of polyphenols on iron absorption, however, there are likely other difficulties with polyphenols for individuals. Polyphenols increase beta-oxidation. If the there are difficulties in fatty acid absorption and fatty acid metabolism increases in beta-oxidation due to polyphenols can not be sustained with difficulties then arising. Even with no difficulties in fatty acid absorption and fatty acid metabolism polyphenol laden drinks should not be drunk throughout the day. Limiting coffee to two cups of coffee drunk in the morning away from iron supplements could be a safe way to drink coffee.

Different binding affinities of different polyphenols with iron

Different polyphenols have different binding affinities to iron apparently due to different levels of iron-binding galloyl groups in different polyphenols. The polyphenols in foods with high levels of polyphenols would also bind iron at higher levels than polyphenols of foods with low levels of polyphenols. The point is that different foods with different kinds of polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols can have different affects on iron. However, if all iron is basically complexed with polyphenols due to coffee, tea and/or sodas then foods with different polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols might not make a difference. Fruits and vegetables would seem not to be delivering the real thing as well as Coca-Cola. The particular delights of different fruits and vegetables could be lost in a diet is high in coffee, tea and/or sodas. Fruit and vegetable consumption is inversely related to all-cause mortality. Mental well-being is associated with high levels of fruits and vegetables in the diet. Diets high in coffee, tea and/or sodas could bias individuals against healthy diets.

A direct connection between the gut and brain and mood is widely accepted now. How signals are sent from the gut to brain and how those signals affect mood has not been clearly established. Levels of aconitase 1 in the gut, activity of the TCA cycle in the gut and regulation of iron regulated proteins in the gut could play a large role in that connection.

Coffee and homocysteine

Filtered or unfiltered coffee increases homocysteine levels in healthy individuals whereas caffeine has a much weaker effect on homocysteine levels. Stopping drinking coffee reduces homocysteine levels.

Increased homocysteine levels point to decreased levels of L-cysteine which is synthesized from homocysteine. With decreased synthesis of L-cysteine iron-sulfur cluster formation could be dysregulated which could upset many biological processes. Increased homocysteine levels could could affect DNA methylation. In schizophrenia there is a positive association between plasma homocysteine and DNA methylation. Difficulties due to coffee could take years to develop due to hypermethylation of genes taking years to develop.