In Friedreich ataxia iron-sulfur clusters are not formed, due to deficiencies in frataxin which results in iron accumulation in mitochondria. The relevant point is that problems in iron-sulfur cluster formation can be associated with iron accumulation in mitochondria and iron toxicity. The point I have been making is that there are difficulties in synthesizing iron-sulfur clusters in many neurological illnesses due to dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway which synthesizes L-cysteine. L-cysteine supplies sulfur for iron-sulfur cluster formation.
Iron chelators are now being investigated as treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. If iron is being accumulated in cells in Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease due to difficulties in iron-sulfur cluster formation then iron chelators would not be appropriate treatments. Iron-sulfur cluster formation is increased by supplemental iron. Iron chelators by decreasing iron would decrease iron–sulfur cluster formation leading to iron accumulation in mitochondria and iron toxicity.
Iron overload in various regions of the brain has been postulated to be involved in the pathological mechanism of Alzheimer’s disease. Iron overload in the brain may very well be involved in the etiology of Alzheimer’s disease but iron overload in the brain in Alzheimer’s disease would not be due to too much iron in the diet.
A meta-analysis indicates that serum iron levels are significantly lower in Alzheimer’s disease patients than in healthy controls. Another meta-analysis also indicates that serum iron is significantly lower in patients with Alzheimer’s disease than in healthy controls.
Loss of control over iron metabolism rather that just ‘too much iron’ could be why iron can have negative effects in Alzheimer’s disease. Treatment in AD would demand that control be regained over iron metabolism. Iron chelators have been proposed as a treatment for Alzheimer’s disease. Iron chelators, however, would not be useful in terms of regaining control over iron metabolism. Iron chelators could have negative effects in AD.
Iron chelators are being clinically tested in a number of neurodegenerative illnesses such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease . I do not think iron chelation is going to work. In fact I think iron chelators will make Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s worse. I very much hope I am mistaken. The difficulty isn’t iron per se but rather dysregulation of iron regulated biological processes. A sensible choice now is to stay away from iron supplements except for anemia. My ideas are very sensible but sensible ideas are wrong all the time. Iron chelation is a very sensible approach to treatment of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s which I think is going to be disastrous.