Occam’s razor – the simplest explanation is usually the right one. How do mood stabilizers work to stabilize mood?
Lithium can stabilize sodium-dependent transporters and sodium-dependent G-protein coupled receptors in inactive states. Lithium reduces activity of various sodium-dependent transporters, for example, Na(+)-coupled inorganic phosphate cotransporters (Andrini et al., 2012), Na+/Cl)/glycine cotransport (Pérez-Siles et al., 2011) and the sodium-myo-inositol co-transporter (Willmroth et al., 2007).
Blocking sodium channels is one of the key mechanisms by which anticonvulsants work (Brodie, 2017). Carbamazepine, valproic acid and lamotrigine are anticonvulsants used to treat bipolar disorder (Bowden and Karren, 2006
.) Carbamazepine is a sodium channel blocker (Kennebäck et al., 1995). Valproic acid blocks sodium channels (Zanatta et al., 2019). Lamotrigine also blocks sodium channels (Kuo, 1998).
Occam’s razor applied to mood stabilizers – Mood stabilizers work by affecting sodium-dependent transporters and/or sodium-dependent G-protein coupled receptors.