Manganese and mental illnesses

There is no doubt that high blood levels of manganese can be neurotoxic and can cause movement disorders. Backing out of manganese toxicity can’t really be done as neurons have been killed

Yet manganese is an essential trace element. For animals, such as humans, manganese is required. Manganese is required by a range of enzymes, for example, glutamine synthetase and arginase. Divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) transports both iron and manganese and is regulated by iron levels. Dysregulation of iron metabolism could also dysregulate manganese metabolism.

Tea can reduce manganese levels which would suggest that manganese reacts with polyphenols. A main point of this blog is that trace minerals must be available in the gut as well as systematically. The way to take trace minerals so trace minerals are available in the gut as well as systematically is take trace minerals at bedtime away from coffee, tea and other drinks except water, away from food and away from other supplements such as vitamin C.

Supplementation with a non-chelated form of manganese could be required to treat a range of mental illnesses. Tests on manganese bloods are required and not an option if manganese is supplemented. The goal is most definitely not high blood levels of manganese but rather normal blood levels of manganese where manganese is available in the gut and liver as well as systematically.

I think non-chelated forms of iron, manganese and copper have to be supplemented at bedtime in a range of mental illnesses.. I know that if iron, manganese and copper are supplemented that tests on mineral levels are required and not an option Individuals who are heavy coffee, tea and/or soda drinkers should suspect that manganese metabolism is dysregulated.

Why would there be a gut-brain axis?

The gut has the highest exposure to the environment of any organ. The gut-brain axis could assist with appropriate environmental regulation of behavior. Prior to 5000 years ago the environments given individuals lived in were basically stable though those such environment varied across the Earth. What individuals placed into their mouths was an accurate reflection of the environments they lived in whereby the gut-brain axis assisted individuals adapting to environments lived in.

What individuals place into their mouths today has very little connection to the locality such individuals are living in. Now individuals place into their mouths junk food, sodas, chemicals, supplements, coffee and tea from very distant places. A main site of actions of junk food, sodas, chemicals, supplements, coffee and tea would be the gut whereby the brain would be affected.

Williams James held that emotions were cognitive readings of bodily states which is going too far. However, basal states of individuals could be very closely tied to the basal states of the environment where the environment can partly but strongly act on individuals via the gut-brain axis. Junk food, sodas, chemicals, supplements, coffee and tea could be affecting the brain quite directly.

An appropriate diet would demand that there be no attempt to escape the gut. As an example supplements formulated for better absorption would not be supplemented. Pharmacokinetics considerations used with pharmaceuticals could be very misleading when used with nutrients and foods generally. Processing of nutrients in the gut could be a key part of nutrients being nutrients. The adverse affects of refined sugars would be an example of ingested substances not being nutrients via a bypassing of carbohydrate processing in the gut.

Different binding affinities of different polyphenols with iron

Different polyphenols have different binding affinities to iron apparently due to different levels of iron-binding galloyl groups in different polyphenols. The polyphenols in foods with high levels of polyphenols would also bind iron at higher levels than polyphenols of foods with low levels of polyphenols. The point is that different foods with different kinds of polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols can have different affects on iron. However, if all iron is basically complexed with polyphenols due to coffee, tea and/or sodas then foods with different polyphenols and different levels of polyphenols might not make a difference. Fruits and vegetables would seem not to be delivering the real thing as well as Coca-Cola.

A direct connection between the gut and brain and mood is widely accepted now. How signals are sent from the gut to brain and how those signals affect mood has not been clearly established. Levels of aconitase 1 in the gut, activity of the TCA cycle in the gut and regulation of iron regulated proteins in the gut could play a large role in that connection.

A proposed experiment

Tea very significantly decreases iron absorption as tannins in tea form insoluble complexes with iron. Iron in iron/tannin-complexes would also not be bioavailable in the gut. Still individuals who drink tea can have normal iron levels. The question is whether blood measures of iron status are a complete picture of iron status. In the proposed experiment rats would be given tea by gavage. Levels of tea given by gavage would not be levels that would cause anemia. What would be tested is the status of aconitase 1 in the gut and the effect of the tea on the citric acid cycle in the gut. Aconitase 1 is regulated by iron levels where with high levels of iron aconitase 1 acts as an aconitase but with low levels of iron aconitase 1 switches to IRP1 which regulates iron regulated proteins. Levels in the gut of citrate synthase, isocitric dehydrogenase and succinate dehydrogenase would would also be tested as iron positively affects these enzymes also. Blood levels of iron would also be tested. The hypothesis is that the effect of tea on the gut in terms of aconitase 1 and other enzymes in the citric acid cycle will be more pronounced than blood levels of iron would indicate.