Schizohprenia, the transsulfuration pathway and epigenetics: A hypothesis and proposed treatment by Thomas Berry, which is on Kindle, first presents my hypothesis. I will provide any updates to the treatment here. The Kindle paper is now out of date.
10.5 milligrams of iron from heme iron polypeptide is taken three times a day. Anemia panels must be obtained to insure that iron levels are not high. A dosage of iron would be dropped if iron levels are high. Whey protein concentrate is taken three times a day. 100 milligrams of thiamine is taken three times a day. 50 milligrams of vitamin B6 is taken twice a day. 200 micrograms of Se-methylselenocysteine is taken once a day. 325 micrograms of iodine from kelp is taken three times a day. Thyroid panels must be obtained. All these supplements, except vitamin B6, Se-methylselenocysteine and iodine support the citric acid cycle. Vitamin B6 supports the transsulfuration pathway. Synthesis of selenoproteins could be dysregulated by dysregulation of the transsulfuration pathway whereby supplemental Se-methylselenocysteine and iodine would be helpful. Deiodinases are selenoproteins. No other supplements are taken.
There are too many food/beverage interactions with any iron supplement except heme iron polypeptide.
Very unfortunately, as the hypothesis posits a basic L-cysteine deficiency, all strategies to increase L-cysteine levels directly are disastrous. N-acetyl-l-cysteine and alpha lipoic acid are, for example,totally disastrous as supplements. Any supplement that increases L-cysteine by decreasing levels of cystine, as do n-acetyl-l-cysteine and lipoic acid, must be avoided. Pantethine and pantothenic acid are also avoided as pantethine and pantothenic acid could decrease cystine levels. N-acetyl-l-cysteine and alpha lipoic acid should not be OTC. Alpha lipoic acid should never be used and N-acetyl-l-cysteine should only be used for acetaminophen poisoning if then. My paper Treatment-resistant schizophrenia: focus on the transsulfuration pathway addresses iron-sulfur proteins and I talk of ACO1 and iron but I did not give enough weight to ACO1 and iron in the paper.
Antioxidant supplements like vitamin E and beta-carotene are avoided. There are reactions that require oxygen which could be adversely affected by vitamin E and other antioxidants. Fe 2-oxglutarate dependent dioxygenases require oxygen.
Iodine is required as deiodinases are selenoproteins so when selenium is taken extra iodine must also be taken.
That increasing re-methylation of homocysteine to L-methionine, via supplemental folic acid and vitamin B12 is counterproductive, is another surprising rule.
Whey protein concentrate that is supplemented should have no whey protein isolates or hydrolyzed whey proteins. Whey protein isolates are highly absorbed but the whey protein must be bioavailable in the the gut whereby only whey protein concentrate with no whey protein isolates or hydrolyzed whey proteins is supplemented.
At this time the treatment is complementary medicine rather than alternative medicine. Prescribed medications should not be stopped without consultation with MDs.
Supplements are a minefield. Do not start the treatment unless contraindicated supplements are at the same time avoided.
What not to supplement is as important as what to supplement. Supplementing with L-methionine or S-adenosyl-l-methionine is avoided. Supplementing with N-acetyl-l-cysteine, L-cysteine, r-lipoic acid and/or alpha lipoic acid supplements is avoided. N-acetyl-l-cysteine and alpha lipoic acid increase L-cysteine levels by decreasing cystine levels which is not of assistance. Pantothenic acid and pantetheine are not supplemented as both could decrease cystine levels. Sodium selenite, sodium selenate and any form of L-selenomethionine are not supplemented. Minerals bound to succinate should be avoided. Zinc is not supplemented. Zinc could decrease copper levels. Vitamin E and other antioxidants except carotenoids that do not work through enzymes are not supplemented. Folic acid and vitamin B12 are not supplemented. To produce L-cysteine via homocysteine there must be homocysteine. Increasing re-methylation of homocysteine to L-methionine by taking supplements is counterproductive. Whey protein isolates and hydrolyzed whey proteins are not supplemented. All B vitamin supplements are avoided except vitamin B6 and thiamine. Riboflavin an/d niacin supplements must be avoided. Riboflavin and niacin undermine the effectiveness of thiamine. Supplement formulations formulated for better absorption are as general rule avoided.
Treatment failure is predicted unless the recommendations as to what not to supplement with are adhered to.